Indo-Europeans in Northern Europe Part 2
The Original Indo-Europeans were the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE), a prehistoric language of the Eurasian Steppes.
Knowledge of them comes chiefly from the linguistic reconstruction, along with material evidence from archeology. According to some archaeologists, PIE speakers cannot be assumed to have been a single, identifiable people or tribe, but were a group of loosely related populations ancestral to the later, still partially prehistoric, Bronze Age Indo-Europeans. This view is held especially by those archaeologists who position an original homeland of vast extent and immense time depth. However, this view is not shared by linguists, as proto-languages generally occupy small geographical areas over a very limited time span, and are generally spoken by close-knit communities such as a single small tribe.
The first or Proto-Indo-Europeans likely lived during the late Neolithic, or roughly 6000 years ago. The current best evidence places them in the forest-steppe zone just North of the Black and Caspian Seas in Eastern Europe in what is now Ukraine, Russia, and Kazakhstan.
The Proto-Indo-Europeans were most likely Iranian pastoral nomads with a horse riding warrior culture. During the Bronze Age the Indo-Europeans developed Bronze technology and part of society developed a manufacturing culture with a merchant class that traveled the vast prairies with horse drawn wagons trading their manufactured goods, weapons, tools, cooking utensils, and other goods from the Balkans to the Ural Mountains. The Indo-European language was the language of the traders and they spread it everywhere they went and it became the Lingua franca of the era. Some of the merchants moved and settled in the places they traded at and spread the language even more. Eventually the original language developed into a group of sister languages.
Some Indo-European sister languages of today.
Baltic (Lithuanian, Latvian)
Slavic (Russian, Polish, Ukrainian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian, Slovak)
Celtic (Irish, Breton, Welsh)
Germanic (English, Dutch, Frisian, German, Scandinavian languages)
Indo-Iranian (Iranian, Persian, Farsi, Indo-Aryan)
Italic (Latin, Spanish, Italian, French, Romanian, Portuguese, Catalan)